Thursday, March 12, 2020
Outline and Critically Assess Rhodes Argument About Hollowing Out of the State Essays Outline and Critically Assess Rhodes Argument About Hollowing Out of the State Essay Outline and Critically Assess Rhodes Argument About Hollowing Out of the State Essay This paper will in the first instance define the term, Hollowing Out Of The State, as Rhodes presented it in 1994. The origins of the hollowing out process related to contemporary policy process in Britain will be outlined followed by a summary of the themes and consequences identified by the author. Alternative perspectives on the theme of hollowing out will be contrasted in an attempt to assess the validity of the claim that government in Britain is being hollowed out. In his essay concerning the hollowing out process, Rhodes is concerned with the erosion of British public sector provision within government and the fact that erosion has taken place from within government itself through a process of delegation, decentralisation and privitisation. In order to understand the main themes of hollowing out, it is important to understand the origins and impetus, which created the need for change. Although there is a long history of transition and alteration to the British system of political administration, the contemporary process of hollowing out can be reasonably traced to the election of the New Right government and Mrs. Thatcher in 1979. During this period, the institutions of social democracy were under severe pressure throughout the 1970s. Through growing power of pressure groups such as Trade Unions, Internal pressures within the Union from the troubles of Northern Ireland and the failed devolution bill in Scotland. On an international basis, the global economy made a contribution to Britains decline in the shape of soaring interest rates, high inflation and massive government expenditure. Spending by central government in the late 70s rose to approximately 43% of GDP. The country moved toward a position of ungovernability and near bankruptcy. As a consequence, government lost the confidence of the electorate and in these circumstances Mrs. Thatcher was elected in 1979. The Conservative government would embark upon a programme aiming to reduce the interfering role of the Nanny State, cut unnecessary waste, overspending and create the wealth needed to return the country to stability. On taking office, the Conservatives intended to reduce the number of unelected bodies but political circumstance did not permit such a response. Mrs. Thatcher was unable to delegate responsibilities from central to local government because of the latters domination by left wing opponents. One nation ideology prevented the use of devolution whilst the confrontational and disruptive melee of Westminster could also disrupt the progress needed to deliver reform. This meant that to some extent, Mrs. Thatcher was forced to look to quasi government and reform of the civil service in order to enact her programme. The difficulty facing the government during this period is highlighted by Gamble (1994). Success depended upon a party pledged to a New Right agenda first obtaining a mandate to reform in a political market corrupted by decades of state intervention, and then carrying it through with the assistance of agencies of the extended state p39 The mandate for the New Right was given in the general election victory in 1979, allowing Thatcher to initiate a programme to restore the authority of government and expand the agencies of the extended state. It is the consequences of this programme which create the main themes and features of hollowing out. Rhodes provides four trends which characterise the transition which took place; 1. Privitisation and limiting the scope and forms of public intervention. 2. The loss of functions by central and local government departments to alternative service delivery (such as agencys). 3. The loss of functions by British Governments to European Union institutions. 4. Limiting the discretion of public servants through the new public management, with its emphasis on managerial accountability, and sharper distinction between politics and administration. P139 Amongst the principle aims of the Conservative government was stopping the state from being involved in every aspect of peoples lives and to reduce the physical bulk of government. This was done in two ways: firstly, through a programme of privitisation, notable in the form of release from government of major utilities and industries such as Coal, Gas, Shipbuilding, Steel, Electricity and Telecommunications. Secondly, through rationalisation at administrative and operational level involving comprehensive review and the introduction of new management techniques. First of all by reviewing where efficiencies could be made and identifying the areas of government to be reduced or transferred to quasi government and privitisation. Harold Wilsons Labour governments of the 1960s began the process but the Thatcher government brought it into central government and greatly extended it. Areas of departmental responsibility first effected by changes included cleansing and catering. In addition to the effect on central departments, this also reduced the influence and responsibility of local authorities whilst validating cuts in their annual budgets. The role of local authorities were being transformed from that of major employer and service provider to one of overseer and enabler as Rhodes points out, The role of local government is to facilitate the delivery of services by others and oversee performance p241 Further reductions in local authority remit effected departments of Housing, Education, Parks Recreation and Direct Works to name a few, altering their position in the community. Much of the power and responsibility of all government departments was dissipated. Rhodes goes on to explain that, as the government sought to release responsibility internally, the relationship evolving with the European Community proved to be the opposite. It is generally recognised that Britain has been the reluctant member of the European Community over the duration of membership. However, in relation to hollowing out, Europe has the effect of eroding the sovereign powers of the British parliamentary system and contributing to fragmentation of the policy making process across the country. As the major agreements made within the European Union grow in significance towards full integration, the central position of authority of Westminster in continually undermined. In addition, the European Unions commitment to the principle of regional representation through subsiduarity also reduces Westminster as a centre of power. This is evident in the potential for access to new policy networks open to the assemblies of Wales and Scotland as they build recognition of Brussels as equal or superior to London. It could be argued that amongst the most significant changes in the reform process are those related to new managerialism in the civil service which will limit the discretion of public service. These developments were initiated with the appointment of Derek Raynor from industry in order to audit government departments and services. The aim was to reduce costs by pursuing the three Es of efficiency, economy and effectiveness. It would begin the process of moving civil servants from administration of policy to management of implementation. Each department would produce individual plans of action with specific objectives designed to meet targets set in advance. These changes would assist the Thatcher government to politically justify strategy but the failure of reforms to deliver successful results was revealed by the review process in 1988. This would lead to the implementation of the Next Steps Initiative designed to further clarify the separation of policy maker from policy implantation. Rhodes (1997) outlines the critical recommendation of the Efficiency Unit report, stating that The management revolution was only skin- deep and recommended introducing agencies to carry out the executive functions of government and bring about real financial and managerial change p95 This was a crucial point in the process of hollowing out as British governance moved from rationalisation of legitimate responsibility to extended delegation through non-elected and anonymous bodies. With this change in the nature of quasi government, Rhodes raises the question of accountability and control. The development of new agencies to cover an expanding list of government practice caused fragmentation throughout the policy network and difficulties in maintaining adequate channels of communication between relevant actors. Rhodes cites Hesse to illustrate the difficulties arising in this regard, Advocates of decentralised self guidance and control often fail to realise that highly differentiated and pluralistic fragmented institutional systems create a growing need for collective steering, planning and consensus building 146 The Next Steps initiative was taken in response to a lack of success of reform, an imbalance was perceived in the policy process, there was too much emphasis on political issues and not enough on policy implementation. The consequence was the creation of agencies with greater autonomy from government to implement policy outcomes. These agencies needed to be as diverse as the departments they served, covering such aspects as stationary, defense, health, fire safety, coastguard, social security, employment or child support for example. Rather than achieving previously unmet targets, Rhodes argues that the opposite was more likely. The National Health Service for example, has always been at the forefront of government reform. However in recent months the government has entered into agreements with private health care trusts to utilise spare capacity to compensate for continuing overload in the NHS. There are grounds to suggest that the difficulties incurred in 1979 are being incurred in 2000. These difficulties are potentially duplicated across the breadth of the policy network. The lack of adequate measures to ensure communication and co-operation increase innefiency and waste, in addition because the legislative process undertaken has been so complex, the drive for efficiency and cost cutting diminishes the room for maneuver within government departments or ministers. Rhodes highlights the problem as follows; Such networks restrict who contributes to policy making and policy implementation. They routinise the policy process. They are also a form of private government. P148 In the latter point, Rhodes highlights a crucial outcome from the proliferation of agencies, accountability. If responsibility for implementation of government policy is too diverse then accountability and control are confused and disparate. The most notable example of confusion was highlighted by BBC 2s Newsnight, when Jeremy Paxman attempted to clarify the role of Home Secretary Michael Howard in the sacking of Derek Lewis who was Chief Executive of the Prison Service when high profile prisoners escaped from prison. It could be argued that little has changed when observing the recent debacle in the Scottish Executive over the delivery of examination results by the Scottish Qualifications Authority. Resignations have taken place from the agency whilst the minister responsible has moved to a new post. Accountability for politicians have shifted, they no longer resign, instead, they attend select committee hearings. The accountability and control of the policy process from parliament itself has been undermined. Rhodes uses the example of the dissolution of the Greater London Council to illustrate the point, Under the Greater London Council (GLC), rate payers paid their rates to four bodies. After abolition of the GLC, they paid taxes to 17 bodies, two thirds of which are unelected p148 Similar example exists in the case of Strathclyde Regional Council, which was dismantled on ideological grounds but in doing so further weakened democratic accountability. The concluding themes of the hollowing out are concerned with such consequences. The changes made in extending networks beyond the reach of their optimum productivity illustrates a transition from government problem solving, to government as the creator of political crisis. The process moved from necessary rationalisation of overloaded government to the creation of over extended and less controllable quasi government in the form of non-elected agencies. The original measures taken to cut costs and achieve greater efficiencies create the lack of experience and knowledge. Competition for contracts equates to the loss of quality and priorities based upon survival of the fittest. The problem set out in the beginning has not been diminished, as there is still evidence of overload. This is supported by Foster and Plowden (1996) when they state that, Activities have been transferred from local government to centrally appointed and directly appointed bodies, and the creation of arms-length agencies within central government has perversely, involved ministers more in their affairs. And ministers are more directly involved in policy formulation than before p219 Rhodes offers three main reasons behind the argument for a return to bureaucracy as a potential solution to the problems caused by hollowing out. Firstly return to balance rather than fragmentation, secondly, public sector record of delivery is as good as private sector and has better flexibility in meeting problems and challenges and thirdly in order to restore accountability and democracy to the policy process in government. Overall, hollowing out illustrates a process that has created less accountable and less effective, reduced government than previous systems. The difficulties of quasi government outweigh the benefits in terms of the problems which reforms set out to solve. In Rhodes view, the private sector is not the fix all that Mrs. Thatcher in particular said it would be. Beneath the veneer on of the British political landscape, the same issues apply in 2000, which existed in 1979. There are alternative views to the hollowing out process; the following section of this paper will attempt to highlight a selection of key points. Michael Seaward outlines an alternative view of what was arguably the most visable and significant programme undertaken by Mrs. Thatcher and highlighted in hollowing out: Privitisation, Decentralisation and Agencification. The achievements of the Conservative governments programme of privitisation were significant, creating major industries in global markets such as BT in telecommunications for example. However many of the privitised industries have led a much more troubled existence. The British coalfield is almost gone altogether, in recent weeks the lack of progress in the rail privitisation has come to the fore along with those of the water companies. The possibility should be considered that the motivations of the Thatcher privitisations were not only concerned with the difficulties of overload but also with the achievement of ideological change. Nationalisation was strongly associated with party allegiance in Britain; the move toward privitisation would create a fundamental change in the relationship between the electorate and the role of government. This is highlighted by Seaward (1997) when he states that, In majoritarian systems, privitisation may appear to be the hollowing out of the state but this trend can equally be interpreted in terms of core actors rationally reshaping the state to suit some of their primary ends (such as power, autonomy, protection from direct responsibility). P22 Privitisation serves two ends, firstly, to serve to lessen the overload on central government departments and ministers and secondly, to alter the perception of the electorate in relation to the role of government. Similarly, decentralisation as it is presented in the hollowing out does not appear to consider the consequences of an approach concerned with ideological change. The avoidance or negation of local authority responsibility was concerned with the confrontation of opposition as much as it was an attempt to reallocate resources and services. The transfer of responsibilities not only decreased the bulk of government but also dismantled a significant vehicle for the adversaries of the Thatcher project. This is also supported by Seaward (1997) when he cites King: The aim of these reforms is to marginalise local government as a political institution by creating local agencies to deliver policy and by denuding its representative function. P23 On the final theme of Agencification, Seaward focuss on the scope for interpretation of reform and the importance of the role of the minister in policy process rather than bureaucratic administration. When this separation was attempted, clear roles were identified for the politicians as representative, the civil servant or department as administrator and the arms length agency in the delivery mode of policy implementation In terms of Britains role within the European Community, the case for the loss of sovereignty is a strong one. There is general agreement concerning the potential for Westminster to become secondary to the dealings of Brussels and its policy networks, as Gray (2000) confirms, In the case of increasing European Union involvement in the internal affairs of the state imply not so much a hollowing out of the state as an effective by pass of it altogether in some areas of policy and administration. The extension of qualified majority voting in the council of ministers extends the possibility of being by passed. P228 Once again this view is correct from a particular perspective but does not take into account the interdependence of the European Union at its centre with the member organisations, which give it life. Britain enters into negotiation with all other partners and retains the power of veto in important areas. Once again a consideration of ideological preference is necessary. This is evident in the Labour governments moves toward partial incorporation in the social charter which was resisted throughout the life of the Conservative government. In terms of the administration of government, all issues in either Brussels or London do not effect each institution in equal measure. Rather than Europe swamping or negating British government, there is an argument for mutual accommodation, illustrated by Smith (1999), Departments have attempted to integrate the EU throughout the department rather than concentrate it within a European co-ordination body as used to be the case. P242 The description of the hollowing out of the state, might better read as the redistribution of parliament and within the policy network, the restructuring of design, administration, delivery, evaluation and financing of the policy process. The arguments for and against the hollowing out process are strongly influenced by the perspective of the observer, the interpretations of the state and its mechanisms. After all of the change which has been undertaken on an economic or strategic basis, an interventionist government still presides over all in Britain and the bulk of government has not decreased. This view is supported by Smith (1999) when he states that, The government has continued to regulate the privitised monopolies, there has been little reduction in the level of public expenditure, and it has intervened greatly in the reforms of health and education, (Richardson, 1993). In other words, the state has been reshaped rather than hollowed out. P205 Here is the crux of the issue; much of the bulk of government, which was, portrayed as such a danger by Mrs. Thatcher in 1979 remains largely intact. Privitisation and quangocracies have not lessened the extent of government; rather they have helped to dismantle it to be put back together in a different order. This is evident in the move to the centre, if not the right of the political spectrum by the Labour Party in order to regain power. It could be argued that Mrs. Thatcher failed in her political aims of reduced government and strong state but was highly successful in her attempt to alter the ideological perspective of the British political landscape. She has ensured that the devide between the pragmatic actions of the conservatives and the collective actions of the socialists has been drastically reduced. The determining factor in this change is leadership and this is supported by Smith (1999) when he states that, leaders often have legitimacy, and the electoral and parliamentary support, to take to take authoritative decisions and therefor to orient the policy directions of networks p243 The conclusion of this paper is that bearing in mind, the significance of an ideological origin to the process, there is strong evidence that the hollowing out of the state has and is continuing to take place. However it is doing so in conjunction with the restructuring of parliamentary structure and continuous adjustment of the actors and responses within the policy network. Only in this fuller sense can the hollowing out of the state be applied to the evolution of the policy process in Britain. What has remained constant or grown in strength throughout this process are the executors of power in the core of government. Although lines of accountability remain, the likelihood of recrimination for wrongdoing has become more unlikely and this is a cause for concern for the future. Both the hollowing out of the state and the strengthening of the core executive remain a matter of ongoing process.
Tuesday, February 25, 2020
Street Gangs & Disproportionate Minority Contact - Assignment Example OJJDP has successfully developed an anti- gang programs whose elements represent prerequisite components of an effective intervention and suppression program. OJJDP adopted a comprehensive community based gang program model by Spergel based on research and development programs on gangs (Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 2014). According to National Gang Center (2014), a successful a successful gang intervention program should encompass the following the following community mobilization, social intervention, opportunity provisions, suppression, organization change and development. According to National Gang Center (2014), community mobilization entails the incorporation of the community at large in the intervention programs. Some of the pertinent parties that should be considered during the program include immediate residents of the given locality, reformed gang members, community groups such as football teams and private agencies within the area. In addition, it is pertinent that an elaborate framework be instituted to oversee the synergy and coordination of staff functions. Social intervention involves the utilization of existing social fraternities to guide gang members adopt conventional norms of the community (National Gang Center, 2014). These social groups may include schools, religious organizations, the police and juvenile institutions. Additionally, the program should provide opportunities for the gang members through education programs, training and provision of employment to reformed gang members. Consequently, gang related activities should be su ppressed through consistent supervision and monitoring of gang members by the police, youth affiliated agencies and the criminal justice systems. Finally, a holistic approach to intervention programs should entail organizational change and development. The programÃ¢â¬â¢s policies and procedure should demonstrate effective and sustainable
Sunday, February 9, 2020
Software development practice - Research Paper Example An estimate of timeline completion of the project XII. Significant risks that may impact the project XIII. Conclusion and justification of the project XIV. References I. Introduction Computer forensics deals with the identification of any legal evidence using the computers, as well as other forms of digital storage devices. After collecting, the evidences are put through a thorough forensics examination to obtain and recover the information the investigators need. The computer forensic investigation chiefly involves the investigation of the computer crimes, the cyber crimes, and also during a court hearing. Subsequently, there is utilization of the later function of computer forensic investigation by the courts of the United States and also of the European Union as evidence of digital crime cases (Volonino & Anzaldua, 2009). II. The Proposed Project of Computer Forensics The proposed project is based on a software program that can easily retrieve any specific data from the hard disk drive of any computer. This is because the hard disk acts as a form of storage device for the computer. Thus, there is storage of most data and also files in this hardware device. Moreover, for any forensic investigator to obtain any sort of digital evidence, they must first look for the details from the computer hard disk. Therefore, the hard disk is one of the chief vital components of the computer because it contains most of the computersÃ¢â¬â¢ files, data and also important documents. Consequently, there is a great significant in the development of a software program for easy and quick retrieval of data contained in the hard disk. Moreover this project of computer forensic works in conjunction with the software of data recovery program. The data recovery program works by recovering any form of lost data by the computer (Volonino & Anzaldua, 2009). III. The Objectives and what the Project Intends to Deliver The main reason for the development of this computer forensic project i s to assist in the quick and effective investigation procedures required during a forensic investigation. For instance, the main part of the computer forensic is chiefly the utilization of the computer hard disk to access any information. This is because hard disks are capable of storing large amount of information about anything. Therefore, because the computer hard disk is capable of storing millions of data on anything, it becomes very tedious for the forensic investigator to search for the exact data that is needed for the investigation (Volonino & Anzaldua, 2009). Moreover, this action needs a lot of time and thus consumes time. Therefore, for the investigator to be competent and to easily access all the details from the hard disk, the forensic investigator needs to implement this computer forensic project. Thus, the chief reason for the development of this computer forensic project is to assist the investigators in easing the procedures of the investigation. Therefore, the com puter project is about how the forensic investigator is capable of obtaining and easily retrieves data from any hard disk of a computer system to be utilized in the investigation procedures. The investigator will find this project extremely helpful to him and also to the court when handling any form of forensic cases. Thus the project focuses majorly o the improvement of the hard disk devices. Additionally, this project will focus on the fundamental process of retrieving information from a given hard disk
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Assumptions and Fallacies Essay Ã¢â¬ ¢ What are assumptions? How do you think assumptions might interfere with critical thinking? What might you do to avoid making assumptions in your thinking? Assumption is an idea one believes to be true based on prior experience or ones belief systems. (Elder Paul, 2002) Assumptions are a part of our belief system but we donÃ¢â¬â¢t know that they are true or not. Assumptions are a vital part of our critical thinking. If we used assumptions all the time then we would not be able to use critical thinking. It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter where we are at, it is imperative to know all the facts prior to drawing any kind of conclusion or it becomes an assumption. It may be difficult at times to utilize critical thinking but by keeping an open minded aspect will help to prevent assumptions. There is nothing worse than making an assumption and then to be confronted by someone who has all the facts can shatter your confidence. You can avoid this by researching all the facts and utilizing your critical thinking abilities to cover every corner and aspect of your idea or topic. This is the key to keep from making assumptions. Ã¢â¬ ¢ What are fallacies? How are fallacies used in written, oral, and visual arguments? What might you do to avoid fallacies in your thinking? Fallacies are deceptive or misleading arguments that are untrue or unreliable. Fallacies are mainly used to help support a personÃ¢â¬â¢s argument when they canÃ¢â¬â¢t find factual evidence to back up their statements. Fallacies can be used in many different ways. They are used on purpose in fictional writing and magazines like People. Fallacies can be orally used by someone when they are telling a firsthand story but are only versed in their side so it may come off as unintentional. I see fallacies being mostly used visually popliteal ads and propaganda media campaigns. They get away with most of these fallacies because the amount of time it takes to research the truth usually takes too long before the psychological damage is already done on the public. People tend to trust what others say unless they have found previous fallacies in their statements. I avoid believing fallacies by being conservative in my thoughts. If I see something that I might consider to be fallacious by my past experiences then I do the research to find out the facts. Fallacies and assumptions hold the same key as research will reveal them all.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Launching The New Engineered Jeans 2.1 Introduction The outline bellows gives an overview of the new engineered jean that Levis will be launching Product A top-end Jean in straight cut that is fits snugly and is flattering, well cut using the engineered technology Price Ã £90 Target Segment Fashion conscious female 18-35yrs 2.2 Objectives of the Launch ============================ * Break into Womenswear Market * Re-launch Engineered technology to emphasise fit * Make consumer aware of new product * Increase sales of engineered Jeans 2.3 The Marketing mix 2.3.1 Segment The WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s market has been the by far the strongest sector in terms of increased sales since Jeans sales began to boom in 2001 (see appendix E), this trend is expected to continue into 2007 (Mintel, 2003). After the Male orientated anti-fit campaign, now is a good time for Levis to turn their attention to the female market. The number of 15-24 year olds in Britain has already increased dramatically and is expected to grow by around 7% by 2007 (Mintel, 2003 See Appendix D). At present LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s do not have our having problems reaching the younger female customer (Foster, 03/2004). If LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s can break into this market it will generate a significant increase in sales. 2.3.2 Product In a recent poll on hanbag.com the Ã¢â¬ Denim DivaÃ¢â¬ look, Jeans teamed with a sexy top and high heels, was voted the most popular by the women who voted (www.wgsn.co.uk, 10/1...
Monday, January 13, 2020
This essay is about a nationally known lobbying group known as MADD or Mothers Against Driving. This is an organization that was first created by a woman named Candy Lightner whom in 1980 tragically lost her daughter to a repeat offense drunk driver. This organization or lobbying group works very hard and whose goal is to keep drivers off the road who have had too much to drink and to also make sure that drunk driving laws are enforced.The thesis statement is Ã¢â¬Å"Mothers Against Drunk Driving has arguably been one of the most successful public-health grassroots citizen dvocacy organizations in the United States in the past century. Ã¢â¬Å"(Fell and Voas). This whole idea of MADD started years ago when Candy Lightner's daughter Carl, was walking with her friend and was struck and killed by a man who left the scene of the accident, and was drunk driving. After she was told that he actually was only out of Jail for two days after being arrested for another hit- and- run drunk- drivin g crash.His record had reflected three other arrests-two resulted in convictions and one was reduced to a reckless driving offense. It was soon after this that Candy Lightner and a few friends started MADD to fight against drunk drivers. The first chapter that was started in Maryland was by another woman named Cindi Lamb who was trying to fight the fact that her five month old daughter became paralyzed by a repeat drunk driver offender as well. The two women were brought together by a press secretary to congress and had a news conference that brought a lot of attention to this impaired-driving problem that is everywhere.Soon all over the nation Candy Lightner was contacted to comment on high profile cases. This lobbying roup was incorporated in 1980 as a California corporation. Ã¢â¬ By June of 1981 it had achieved IRS tax-free status: later in the year, it received$100,OOO in private funds. Ã¢â¬ Articles on the organization appeared in many magazines and newspapers out there s uch as Los Angeles Times, Family Circle. Candy was the guest on many talk shows such as The Today Show, Phil Donahue and others. With the great increase in media attention to the impaired-driving problem and the surge in alcohol legislation in the 1980's, there was a heartening reduction in alcohol- related fatal crashes between 980 an 1995. Ã¢â¬Å"(NHTSA, 1995). MADD had developed a strong capability to respond to the growing press and interest in this ever growing problem. This part of the essay contains the claim and some of the background. There is a lot of evidence both qualitative and quantitative in MADD's effect on the impaired-driving problem we have in our America. There is general acceptance of the relationship between laws, their enforcement, and public education on driver perceptions of the risk of being caught for DUI (driving under the influence) which affect public attitudes toward impaired driving. (Gladwell, 2001). MADD founder Candy has been invited to speak at th e formal signing of each of the legislative bills. Six of the most important pieces of alcohol safety legislation are MLDA 21 laws, zero tolerance for youth laws,. 08BAC limit laws,ALS laws, illegal per se laws and increased adoption of the legislative laws.This is part of the three tiered approach to the ending of drinking and driving. At the community level, MADD has chapters that help support police enforcement activities when it comes to strong DUI enforcement and rewarding police officers who make the most DUI arrests. Before MADD offenders were given light sentences but now there is a lot of court monitoring by MADD to assure offenders gets there Just do. This part of the essay contains some of the background and body, along with supporting evidence and data and scholarly research.An opposing view to MADD comes from the American Beverage Licenses or (ABL). This organization represents beer, wine and spirits retailers in the U. S. They have made many anti-MADD statements as wel l as criticizing General Motors. One of the claims that the ABL has made is that MADD targets social drinkersÃ¢â¬ ABL claims hat MADD would have you arrested if you had a glass of wine with dinner and then driven safely home or if you had a cocktail with your friends after work before heading home.They also claim that MADD wants to criminalize the 40 million adults that responsibly enjoy a glass of wine with dinner or a beer at a ball game and drive safely home. Ã¢â¬Å"(Hingson and Winter, 2003) This is simply not a true statement. MADD is just in support to the lowering of blood alcohol levels to 0. 08 and that is not reached by a glass of wine or from one beer. This level is reached by an average male size ho consumes 4 drinks in 1 hour or by an average sized female consuming 3 drinks. Social drinking does not attain to a blood alcohol level of 0. 8. General Motors is viewed as being a support for MADD but ABL claims that General Motors should be held accountable for supporting MADD. This could be viewed as a rebuttal to the opposing view of ABL. In Conclusion there is a lot of evidence that MADD has helped so many victims of drunk driving and they give so much of their time providing not only emotional support but also victim assistance programs and court accompaniments and that is hy this lobbying group is so very important to a lot of people and in helping so many.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Charles Horton Cooley and the Symbolic Interactionism Theory Should we associate the abandonment of Ã¢â¬ËselfÃ¢â¬â¢ with symbolic interactionism? Do you feel the need to Ã¢â¬Ëchange your stripesÃ¢â¬â¢ to fit in with society? Ã¢â¬ËAn individual is an abstraction unknown to experience, and so likewise is society when regarded as something apart from individuals.... Society and individuals do not denote separable phenomena, but are simply collective and distributive aspects of the same thingÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢ (Thomas Francis O Dea) In this aspect of his theory, Charles Horton Cooley, a symbolic interactionist, concluded that our sense of Ã¢â¬â¢selfÃ¢â¬â¢ develops from interactions with others. Cooley described this process as the looking -glass self. The looking- glass selfÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The only problem with this idea is that it leaves the idea of originality to be an outcast on society. Being different from every one is a call for prejudice, harassment, and not being part of the societies typical norms. We should be able to see a person for their general or master accomplishments and their abilitiesÃ¢â¬ ¦not if the society excepts them as an individual. The theory it self is an outline for and how to make someone an outcast. If a person comes along and is living in society and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t bother too much about his appearance or materialistic things, is he/she an outcast. By CooleyÃ¢â¬â¢s theory he/she is an out cast because in his theory he states, Ã¢â¬ËThe imagination of our appearance to the other person, the imagination of his judgment of that appearance, and some sort of self-feeling, such as pride or mortification.Ã¢â¬â¢ (Coser) If this individual chooses to believe and go by what he wants and not what the society wants him to go by, he is shunned and considered an outcast, when in actuality society is the outcast for trying to be like every one else. Cooley also states that Ã¢â¬ËIfÃ¢â¬ ¦we say that society is an organism, we meanÃ¢â¬ ¦that it is a complex of forms of proces ses each of which is living and growing by interaction with the others, the whole being so unified that what takes place in one part affects all the rest. It is a vast tissue of reciprocal activity.Ã¢â¬â¢ (Coser) In this part of his theory I interpreted it as if we deny the chance for your individual to growShow MoreRelatedSymbolic Interactionism2313 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Sociology 10 Professor Arkadie Symbolic Interaction Perspective There are several sociological perspectives including functionalism, conflict, social exchange, and sociological imagination. The one that will be talked about within this paper is called symbolic interaction. Symbolic interaction does not focus on social structure like other sociological perspectives do, symbolic interaction is based on small, mostly person to person ideas and perspectives on what symbols mean between peopleRead MoreCharles Horton Cooley s Concept Of The Looking Glass Self870 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn 1902, Charles Horton Cooley fashioned the concept of the looking-glass Ã¢â¬Ëself,Ã¢â¬â¢ this concept was researched to learn how identity is shaped. The authors concluded that people shape their identity based on the perception of how they think others view them. Three ideas comprise the looking-glass Ã¢â¬ËselfÃ¢â¬â¢: First, we see in our mindÃ¢â¬â¢s eye how we appear to others, second we imagine their judgment of how we appear to them, and third we develop our Ã¢â¬ËselfÃ¢â¬â¢ (our own identity) receiving the judgments fromRead MoreWhat I Have Learned From A Social Theory Class1240 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMead Cooley In this sociology paper I will present what I have learned from this social theory class. We learned about many miraculous theorists such as Karl Marx, Auguste Comete, Herb Spencer, Emile Durkheim and many more theorists. I will present what I have learned by comparing and contrasting George Herbert Mead and Charles Horton Cooley. This paper will examine what both of these great theorists studied, some of their background info and theory. George Herbert Mead George Herbert MeadRead MoreSymbolic Interactionism, By George Herbert Mead And Charles Horton Cooley937 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Symbolic interactionism is a sociological perspective that is influential in many areas of the sociological discipline. It is particularly important in microsociology and social psychology. Symbolic interactionism is derived from American pragmatism and particularly from the work of George Herbert Mead. Herbert Blumer, a student and interpreter of Mead, coined the term symbolic interactionism and put forward an influential summary of the perspective: people act toward things based on the meaningRead MoreExample Of The Three Theoretical Perspectives Of Sociology1044 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology Nanesha Greathouse HCC Abstract This paper describes the three major theoretical perspectives in Sociology: symbolic interactionism, functionalism and conflict theory. Sociologists developed these theoretical perspectives to help explain the way individuals conduct themselves and to help us to gain a better understanding of the world around us. Throughout this paper, the reader will learn about each perspective and its origin as well as additionalRead MoreTaking a Look at the Labeling Theory909 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The labeling theory is one of the critical perspective sociological theories of crime. Labeling theory was the first of the critical perspectives and like the other critical perspectives, it considers defining crime, as well as applying a label to those who commit what is defined as a crime to be problematic. Among the issues addressed by labeling theory are defining deviance based on primary deviance through implementing a label on the offender, discrimination by formal institutions, as well asRead Mo reEffects of Online Dating on Society 1875 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesresearch that allow for their theories to be used on many different subjects. Two theories that fall into the category of fitting many subjects are Symbolic Interactionism and Functionalism. The theorist who studied these particular theories allowed for them to be used with many different subjects. The theory of Symbolic Interactionism was studied by theorists such as George Mead, with the help of his student and interpreter Herbert Blumer, and George Cooley. While all of these theoristsRead MoreSymbolic Interaction Theory By George Herbert Mead1122 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSymbolic interaction theory emerged in the early 1900s and is still one of the more frequently used theories in the family studies (Smith Hamon, 2012). The theory assumes that people have different interpretations of situations due to their personal experiences (Smith Hamon, 2012). By looking at the behaviors of individuals, symbolic interaction theory explains how multiple people have different reactions to the same situation (Smith Hamon, 2012). Four principal scholars explored the symbolicRead MoreThe Major Theories of Sociology Essay1221 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSymbolic Interactionism In the field of sociology, sociologists use many different theories to base their ideas and observations on; however, the three major theories that are used are symbolic interactionism, functional analysis, and conflict theory. It is these three theories that will be the focus of this paper. To begin with, we will start with symbolic interactionism. Charles Horton Cooley and George Herbert Mead developed symbolic interactionism. In order to understand what this theory isRead MoreThe Theory Of Human Actions, Decisions, Behavior, And Other External Elements Essay967 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEarly sociologists, instrumental in the development of sociologyÃ¢â¬â¢s three foundational theories, --George Herbert Meade, Charles Horton Cooley, Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer, Emile Durkheim, and Karl Marx-- established the framework of symbolic interactionism, functionalism, and conflict theory. Each played key roles in establishing the levels and focuses of analysis that are used in applying the three theoretical perspectives to the study of human actions, decisions, behavior, and other external